Castel Campo is situated in the middle of a thick forest, between the river Duina to the west and the Rio Rezola to the east. The Romans considered this a sacred place and dedicated it to the god Silvanus, patron of forests. It has been site to various constructions since antiquity which served to shelter the surrounding populace in case of danger.
The castle is mentioned in an official document for the first time in 1163, along with the name of the Campo family, which inhabited it for more than 300 years. Gradually, constructions in stone and masonry replaced the primitive wooden tower. First came the west tower, built in stone around 1200, then the chapel of St. Nicholas, and then the eastern tower, around 1400.
The 14th century saw massive upheaval and warfare in the area, while the Campo family contended with other important Trentine families for land, power and riches. The local population was continually ravaged by disease (most notably during the plague of 1348) and devastation caused by conflicts between the feudal lords. These escalated throughout the 14th and early 15th century to bring about the near-complete destruction of Castel Campo in 1439. The castle was then painstakingly reconstructed by Graziadeo da Campo between 1444 and 1457.
In 1468 the Austrian von Trapp family bought the castle and went on to inhabit it for more than 400 years, enriching it with frescoes and new constructions. In 1891 they sold it to the German Count Teodor Rautenstrauch, whose architectural modifications served to turn the castle from a fortress more into a Romantic country retreat. He added a smaller, panoramic tower to the north and lowered the wall that enclosed the courtyard to the west.